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 제품안내  형광시약   Fluorescent Membrane/Membrane Potential Dyes

Mitochondrial Dyes

세포막전위 변화 (membrane potential change)에 따른 dye의 반응도를 관찰하는데 이용되는 형광 dye입니다.

JC-1은 mitochondrial membrane potential 연구에 주로 이용됩니다. 이때 정상 세포내에서의 JC-1 dye는 미토콘드리아에 red 형광을 띠며 축적되고, 아폽토시스가 일어난 세포에서는 세포질에 green 형광으로 남으므로, 세포자살 (apoptosis) 연구에 유용합니다.

Biotium
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    제품 종류
  • DASPEI
    • Catalog Number: 70018
    • DASPEI is used to stain mitochondria in live cells. Absorption/emission = 461/589 nm (MeOH).

      Store at 4 °C and protect from light, especially in solution.

      C17H21IN2. Mwt: 380. [3785-01-1].

    • References
      1. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 261, 452 (1999);
      2. J Exp Biol 202, 3485 (1999);
      3. J Biol Chem 272, 21964 (1997);
      4. Biochim Biophys Acta 1278, 205 (1996);
      5. Microscopy Res Technique 33, 496(1996).
  • Dihydrorhodamine 123
    • Catalog Number: 10055
    • Dihydrorhodamine 123 is the reduced form of rhodamine 123 (70010), which is a commonly used fluorescent mitochondrial dye. Dihydrorhodamine 123 itself is nonfluorescent, but it readily enters most of the cells and is oxidized by oxidative species or by cellular redox systems to the fluorescent rhodamine 123 that accumulates in mitochondrial membranes.1 Dihydrorhodamine 123 is useful for detecting reactive oxygen species including superoxide (in the presence of peroxidase or cytochrome c)2,3 and peroxynitrite.4,5

      White solid soluble in DMSO. Store at -20 °C and protect from air and light, especially when in solution.

      C20H18N2O3. Mwt: 346.

      Also see dihydrorhodamine 123 dihydrochloride (10056), a more stable and water soluble form of dihydrorhodamine 123

    • References
      1. J. Immunol. Meth. 178, 89(1995);
      2. Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 973(1993);
      3. Arc. Biochem. Biophys. 302, 348(1993);
      4. Biochemistry 34, 3544(1995);
      5. Free Rad. Biol Med. 16, 149(1994).
  • Dihydrorhodamine 123, dihydrochloride salt
    • Catalog Number: 10056
    • Only available from BioTeam, dihydrorhodamine 123 dihydrochloride is the HCl salt form of dihydrorhodamine 123 (10055) and is functionally equivalent to the latter. However, dihydrorhodamine 123 dihydrochloride is more water soluble and more stable to air oxidation than dihydrorhodamine 123. Thus, dihydrorhodamine 123 dihydrochloride is easier to use and can be stored longer than dihydrorhodamine 123.

      White solid soluble in DMSO and water. Store at -20 °C and protect from air and light, especially when in solution

      C20H20Cl2N2O3. Mwt: 419.

    • References
      1. J. Immunol. Meth. 178, 89(1995);
      2. Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 973(1993);
      3. Arc. Biochem. Biophys. 302, 348(1993);
      4. Biochemistry 34, 3544(1995);
      5. Free Rad. Biol Med. 16, 149(1994).
  • JC-1 (Chloride) (Full chemical name: 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' -tetraethyl- benzimidazolylcarbocyanine chloride) (purity > 95% by HPLC)
    • Catalog Number: 70011
    • lipophilic cation dye로 mitochondria에 쉽게 들어감.
    • 적은양이 들어가면 녹색(527nM)을 띠고, 많은 양이 들어가면 빨간색(590nM)을 띰.
    • apoptosis가 일어나는 세포의 경우 JC-1이 membrane을 잘 통과하지 못해 녹색을 띰.
    • A mitochondrial dye (full chemical name: 5,5' ,6,6' -tetrachloro-1,1' ,3,3' -tetraethyl- benzimidazolylcarbocyanine chloride) that stains mitochondria in living cells in a membrane potential-dependent fashion. JC-1 monomer is in equilibrium with so-called J-aggregates, which are favored at higher dye concentration or higher mitochondrial membrane potential.

      The monomer JC-1 has green fluorescence (λ em = 527 nm), while the J-aggregates have red fluorescence (λ em = 590 nm). Therefore, it has been possible to use fluorescence ratioing technique to study mitochondrial membrane potentials.

      e (MeOH) = 190,000.

      Red solid soluble in DMSO. Store at 4 ° C. Protect from light, especially when in solution.

      C25H27Cl3N4. Mwt: 561.5.

    • References
      1. Smiley, S.T., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88, 3671(1991);
      2. Reers, M., et al. Biochemistry 30, 4480(1991).
  • JC-1 (Iodide) (Full chemical name: 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' -tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide) (purity > 95% by HPLC)
    • Catalog Number: 70014
    • lipophilic cation dye로 mitochondria에 쉽게 들어감.
    • 적은양이 들어가면 녹색(527nM)을 띠고, 많은 양이 들어가면 빨간색(590nM)을 띰.
    • apoptosis가 일어나는 세포의 경우 mitochondrial membrane depolarization이 생기고, JC-1이 membrane을 잘 통과하지 못해 녹색을 띰.
    • JC-1 iodide is similar to JC-1 chloride salt (70011). See 70011 for applications and references.

      C25H27Cl4IN4. Mwt: 652 [47729-63-5].

    • References
      1. Smiley, S.T., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88, 3671(1991);
      2. Reers, M., et al. Biochemistry 30, 4480(1991).
  • Nonylacridine Orange (Also known as NAO) (purity > 95% by HPLC)
    • Catalog Number: 70012
    • A mitochondrion-staining dye whose staining is not dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential, unlike JC-1 and rhodamine 123 (See 70010 and 70011).

      Orange solid soluble in DMSO and DMF. Stable at room temperature. Store at 4 ° C. Protect from light, especially when in solution.

      λ ex\λ em (MeOH) = 495nm\522nm. e (MeOH) = 63,000.

      C26H38BrN3. Mwt: 473.

    • References
      1. naud, M.H., et al. Cytometry 9, 206(1988).
  • Rhodamine 123 (purity > 95% by HPLC)
    • Catalog Number: 70010
    • A popular green fluorescent mitochondrial dye that stains mitochondria in living cells in a membrane potential-dependent fashion. Widely used in flow cytometry studies involving mitochondrial membrane potential.

      λ ex\λ em (MeOH) = 505nm\534nm. e (505 nm, MeOH) = 97,000.

      Orange red solid soluble in DMSO and DMF. Store at 4 ° C. Protect from light, especially when in solution.

      C21H17ClN2O3. Mwt: 381. [62669-70-9]

    • References
      1. Millot, J.M., et al. Cytometry 17, 50(1994);
      2. Bernal, S.D., et al Science 218, 1117(1982);
      3. Johnson, L.V., et al. J. Cell Biol. 88, 526(1981).
  • Tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, perchlorate (TMRE)
    • Catalog Number: 70016
    • TMRM (70017) and TMRE (70016) are said to be the preferred dyes for quantitative measurements of membrane potentials using Nernst equation. The dyes do not form aggregates in cell membarnes and interact with membrane proteins minimally. Thus, the transmembrane distribution of the dyes is directly related to the membrane potential via Nernst equation.

      Absorption/Emission = 549/574nm(MeOH). Red solid soluble in DMSO, DMF or EtOH. Store at 4 °C and protect from light.

      C26H27ClIN2O7. Mwt: 515.

    • References
      1. Meth. Cell Biol. 38, 195(1993);
      2. Meth. Cell Biol. 30, 193(1989);
      3. Biophys. J. 56, 1053(1989);
      4. Biophys., J. 53, 785(1988).
  • Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester, perchlorate (TMRM)
    • Catalog Number: 70017
    • TMRM (70017) and TMRE (70016) are said to be the preferred dyes for quantitative measurements of membrane potentials using Nernst equation. The dyes do not form aggregates in cell membarnes and interact with membrane proteins minimally. Thus, the transmembrane distribution of the dyes is directly related to the membrane potential via Nernst equation.

      Absorption/emission = 548/573nm(MeOH). Red solid soluble in DMSO, DMF or EtOH. Store at 4 °C and protect from light.

      C25H25ClIN2O7. Mwt: 501.

    • References
      1. Meth. Cell Biol. 38, 195(1993);
      2. Meth. Cell Biol. 30, 193(1989);
      3. Biophys. J. 56, 1053(1989);
      4. Biophys., J. 53, 785(1988).